Madras Presidency

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Madras Presidency

Post  tungduong_9102 on 5th January 2011, 23:48

Madras Presidency (Tamil: சென்னை மாகாணம், Telugu: చెన్నపురి సంస్థానము, Malayalam: മദ്രാസ് പ്രസിഡന്‍സി, Kannada: ಮದ್ರಾಸ್ ಪ್ರೆಸಿದೆನ್ಚ್ಯ್, Oriya: ମଦ୍ରାସ୍ ପ୍ରେସୋଦେନ୍ଚ୍ଯ), also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. George, was a province of British India. At its greatest extent, Madras Presidency included much of southern India, including the present-day Indian State of Tamil Nadu, the Malabar region of North Kerala, Lakshadweep Islands, the Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra Pradesh, Ganjam district of Orissa and the Bellary, Dakshina Kannada, and Udupi districts of Karnataka. The presidency had its winter capital at Madras and summer capital at Ootacamund.

The Presidency had its origins in the Agency of Fort St George established by the British East India Company soon after the purchase of the village of Madraspatnam in 1639. However, there have been Company factories at Machilipatnam and Armagon ever since the early 17th century. Madras was upgraded to a Presidency in 1652 before reverting to its previous status as an Agency. In 1684, Madras was elevated to a Presidency once again and Elihu Yale was appointed its first President. From 1785 onwards, as per the provisions of the Pitt's India Act, the ruler of the Presidency of Fort St George was styled Governor instead of President and was made subordinate to the Governor-General at Calcutta. Madras made a significant contribution to the Indian independence movement in the early decades of the 20th century. Madras was the first province in British India where the system of dyarchy was first implemented. The Presidency was dissolved when India became independent on August 15, 1947. On January 26, 1950, when the Republic of India was inaugurated, Madras was admitted as one of the states of the Indian Union.

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